Monday, September 30, 2019

Atticus in To Kill a Mockingbird Essay

Who in To Kill a Mockingbird is a good father, a good lawyer and a good citizen? Atticus is a great father in many ways. One example would be his style of discipline, meaning that he tries to lead Scout and Jem through a discussion to see what it is that they have done wrong and why it is wrong. As a lawyer, during the case of Tom Robinson, Atticus does all that he could to prove Tom’s innocence’s. Lastly, as a good citizen, Atticus is known to be very respectful, like when he helps Ms.Dubose with her addiction. In the novel To Kill a Mockingbird, written by Harper Lee, Atticus Finch’s influence on his daughter Scout is made clear through the importance he places on education, the admirable ways he practices law, and through his effective interactions with Maycomb residents. Atticus Finch’s influence on his daughter Scout is made clear through the importance he places on education. After Scouts first day of school, she complained to Atticus of how the teac her argued that the both of them should no longer read together, so then she no longer would need to go to school. Atticus decided to change Scouts thinking by encouraging her and saying â€Å"If you’ll concede the necessity of going to school, we’ll go on reading every night just as we always have.† Atticus perspective of this was to prove to Scout that no one should interfere of what you want to do or have been doing, as long as you feel it is right. During the course of the case proceedings of Tom Robinson, it was a difficult time period for the Finches but Atticus warned Scout that if even if she hears anything about it in school, she should do him a favor and â€Å"You just hold your head high and keep those fists down. No matter what anybody says to you, don’t you let ’em get your goat? An educational view on this would be that as Scout being a student she must be determined in order to achieve her goals. While at the trial , during Atticus closing argument he pointed out that â€Å"The most ridiculous example I can think of is that the people who run pu blic education promote the stupid and idle along with the industrious- because all men are created equal, educators will gravely tell you, the children left behind suffer terrible feelings of inferiority.†. Atticus view of this would be that ‘men are created equal’ and so just as the stupid are treated the same as the smart students, the blacks should be treated the same way as the white citizens, and so in conclusion it results that Atticus puts great value on education. Atticus Finch’s influence on his daughter Scout is made clear through the admirable ways he practices law. Author, Harper Lee included a saying on â€Å"There’s something in our world that makes men lose their heads- they couldn’t be fair if they tried. In our courts, when it’s a white man’s word against a black man’s word, the white always wins. They’re ugly, but these are the facts of life†. This speech that Atticus said was to show Scout how much racism goes on in the town of Maycomb. In this case it was to prove that any conflict that may happen between a black man and a white man, the white man would always win so no matter what there would alway s be a racist person. According to Atticus, â€Å"You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view – until you climb into his skin and walk around in it.† When Scout had complained about her first day at school and how Miss Caroline treated her, Atticus advised Scout to get to know her and let her learn more about the Maycomb ways before she makes judgments on her. Atticus was currently teaching Scout empathy, this is a quite a difficult task because people live their lives through their own understanding and only become open-minded when they see something from another person’s view. This quote is compared to Atticus during the court trial with Tom Robinson, he knew that his client was a black man but he did not judge his client based on his color and agreed to defend him. This puts an influence to Scout that you should judge anyone under any circumstance.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

A Haunted House Essay

â€Å"A Haunted House† by Virginia Woolf, is a short story that tells the experience of a young couple, living in a house with a ghostly couple. The story begins with a â€Å"ghostly couple† looking for their treasure, in the house they previously lived in while alive. While alive, the ghosts lived in the house more than a century before the current residents. The woman died first, this is when the man left her and the house, he â€Å"went North, went East, saw the stars turned in the Southern sky. † Later when the man died, he returned to join the woman ghost at the house they occupied while together. Fearing, that the new couple may have found their treasure, the ghosts go from â€Å"room to room they went, hand in hand, lifting here, opening there. Opening windows, whispering not to wake us, the ghostly seek their joy. † The narrator, being aware that there are ghosts in the house, never feared being harmed. In the end, the author reveals that the buried treasure is â€Å"the light in the heart,† referring to all the different places in and around the house, where they had expressed their love to each other. The female ghosts says, â€Å"Here, sleeping; in the garden reading; laughing, rolling apples in the loft. Here we left our treasure. † It had never been missing. The major characters are the â€Å"Ghost† couple and the minor are the living couple; the ghosts are both dynamic characters. Through the entire story, the ghosts go from frantically searching for their treasure, even believing that the current residence may have found it. To realizing, what they were searching for was there the whole time. Therefore, changing the thought that they had lost their treasures, when truly their â€Å"treasure†, which was the love and joy they shared in the house was never lost and remained in the house all this time. As for the living couple, I believe they are both static characters. Their opinion of the ghosts or house never changes through the entire story. The conflict in this story is internal. As the ghosts search frantically going room to room. They realize, that the treasure they are looking for is not an actual tangible item, but â€Å"the light in the heart,† which is the love they held in their hearts and the memories they had in the house. The setting for this short story takes place in a centuries old two story house with a garden. The house sits on a tree-lined avenue close to a farm. With the description of â€Å"all the leaves were green in the glass†, you might think the season is most likely spring or summer. Therefore, I believe the setting to be general. The story is written from the first person point of view, through the perspective of the narrator who’s the new resident in the house. She lives in the house with her husband and she tells the reader about the ghost’s conversations and activities. Using first person point of view in this case builds suspense as the reader follows the narrator through this living â€Å"haunted† house. Woolf uses irony, stream of consciousness, and repetition to explain what is happening. By using stream of consciousness, she is able to tell the lives of the characters by revealing the associations and thoughts they have. For example, â€Å"Here we slept,† â€Å"Upstairs†, â€Å"In the garden†. These quotes let the readers know all the different places they shared their joy and love. The first use of irony is clearly in the title, â€Å"A Haunted House. † This haunting is unlike the stereotypical kind we might expect that produces a sense of fear and/or dread. The living couple had no fear of these ghosts in their house. The irony is the total opposite. Throughout the story, the author shows the reader the love and great memories the ghost couple shared in the â€Å"haunted house†. Virginia Woolf uses the repetition of the words â€Å"here† and â€Å"it† to describe the â€Å"treasure† and where it may be. The reader is informed that the ghost are trying to look for something, it’s not until the end of the story that the reader is informed what â€Å"It† was. With the use of streaming consciousness, irony, and repetition Virginia Woolf was able to portray the meaning of â€Å"A Haunted House. † That the joy and love shared between the ghost couple is the treasure of life and love. The theme of the story is man vs love. The central idea is that love is everlasting and conquers all. Even after death, the love and joy remains hidden within us all, if you know where to look.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Critically review weiland and wisley's statement in the light of state Essay

Critically review weiland and wisley's statement in the light of state policies and intervention using a specified international event. (cricket world cup or th - Essay Example far less attention in countries with a far lesser fan following, would that not be enough reason to consider an unprejudiced analysis of the circumstances of sporting defeats? With the changing scenario in the cricket world, the major test playing nations are implementing strict policy measures and considering unorthodox methods to enhance the waning credibility of the sport. Clearly most of these tactics are designed to satisfy the incensed sports supporters – a strong opposition to contend with. Some of the most conservative national cricket boards and cricketing councils are compelled to take surprising stands, clearly out of desperation. It is quite evident that these strategies are a direct outcome of the open mass condemnation targeted at poor player performance. The International Cricket Council (ICC) is the international governing body of cricket. Founded as the Imperial Cricket Conference in 1909 by representatives from England, Australia and South Africa, it assumed its current name in 1989. With 97 members, 10 of which are official test match playing nations, the ICC controls and organises the major international tournaments, and appoints umpires and referees who officiate at all sanctioned international one-day and test matches. The ICC establishes and implements the ICC Code of Conduct, which puts forth the professional standards of discipline for international cricket, and also coordinates action against corruption and match fixing through its Anti-Corruption and Security Unit (ACSU). While the ICC d regulates international cricket, the national governing bodies of some of the highly regarded test playing nations include the BCCI (Board of Control for Cricket in India), PCB (Pakistan Cricket Board), ECB (England and Wales Cricket Board), and United Cricket Board (South Africa’s national cricket association). Some of the lesser-known cricketing nations also have established regulatory bodies including Ireland (Irish Cricket Union) and Holland.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Unit 18 Advertising and Promotions - Level 4 Advertising and Assignment

Unit 18 Advertising and Promotions - Level 4 Advertising and Promotions - Nandos Loyalty Card HND Business - Assignment Example One of the firms that have undertaken extensive communication strategies to attract more customers is Nando’s. The section below discusses the communication process and how the communication process relates to the Nando’s advertisement process. As indicated by transmission model that was developed by Shannon and Weaver (1949), communication process consists of six major steps. The first one is the formulation of the idea in the mind of the sender. During this stage, an individual who want to send the message, comes up with something that he or she want to relate to another person. The second step is encoding the message. This implies that putting the information in a language that suits the recipient. For example, the sender who wishes to send a message to a child must encode it differently from that of professional colleague. The third step is transmitting the message. This involves using various avenues such as speaking, writing or using emails among others. The fourth step is receiving the message that has been sent by the sender. As a receiver, one should read or listen to the message. The fifth stage is decoding the message. This entails processing the message in such a way that it makes sense to the receiver. The six th stage according to the transmission model is understanding the message (Barnlund, 2008). It is worth to note that a message may be sent, read or listened to but understanding the message is the most paramount thing. In the Nando’s advertising process, communication process has been effectively utilised. For example, before the launching of Nando’s Loyalty Card, the firm came up with the communication idea that depicted the use of a card that cannot be used in libraries, night clubs or coffee shops but only in Nando’s. Similarly, the business has used various channels of communicating with

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Level 6 Diploma in Career Guidance and Development - Career Guidance Essay - 1

Level 6 Diploma in Career Guidance and Development - Career Guidance Theory - Essay Example In fact, these two go hand-in-hand. One has to be guided on the best career that suits him/her, basing on some well proven facts, before the career is now developed and nurtured in him/her. Career guidance is a broad process that involves many career development practices that bring people to their occupation understanding (James A., 2008,420). Various factors influence the peoples’ career making decisions they include; interests, hobbies and talents, environment, society, parents among others. These factors alter the peoples’ career making decisions bringing forth four critical concepts or theories that bring about the success of a good career choice they include; career choice, decision making, career learning and transition and vocational behavior.√ In my profession of career guidance, these concepts are very vital in helping clients overcome the career choice problems. I have to employ these concepts step by step, starting from the long list of careers that people have in mind, till the time they are able to come up with a satisfying career decision and learning. I have to make sure that I make use of each and every theory and aspect that is necessary for a good career development and guidance plan. There are very many processes that can be followed. Different groups of scholars have come up with varied ways and processes that can be used in career development, in various professional fields. To understand the career guidance process vividly, I am going to discuss some of the career guidance theories and their relation to the above mentioned concepts of career choice. These theories are John Holland’s career theory, John Krumboltz’s theory and Donald Super’s theory. John Holland topological theory states that personality types and background or peer group are what attracts people to certain careers. He gives much emphasis on self scrutiny and career preference whereby one selects a career to satisfy

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Technical-rational approaches to organisation have little relevance to Coursework

Technical-rational approaches to organisation have little relevance to managers in the current business environment. Discuss - Coursework Example The technical-rational approach to organizations is the process of reducing actual practices to a set of particular competencies and revising and practicing them regularly for the purpose of learning and assessment. A technical-rational approach to organization identifies core competencies and then tries to build an environment supporting exchange of knowledge and a system that can measure performance and ensure quality. Technical-rational approach is a part of the classical school and scientific management and is often regarded as the bureaucratic organization studies. It is called so because people in organizations have a defined set of tasks and responsibilities. Moreover, organizations also have hierarchical structures of reporting in the classical approach, which means that employees report to one another and can also have management responsibilities. Each organization have their own set of rules and procedures for the completion of tasks, and the position of all the employees d epends on their abilities and are judged on merit. Another important aspect of technical-rational approach to organizational studies is that all the employees are supposed to act in an impartial and unemotional manner with the well-being and goal fulfilment acting as the motivation. The economic growth along with increasing number of organizations also resulted in increasing the technical-rational approaches towards organization. As organizations continued to grow and expand in all directions, the number of jobs also increased as well as the requirement for specialized people expert in a single particular area. While the technical-rational approach to organizations gained tremendous popularity, it also had a number of disadvantages with a major one being the fact that employees would not be as effective if they perceive the rules and procedures as

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Influence Of Transformational Leadership Styles In Developing Small Essay

Influence Of Transformational Leadership Styles In Developing Small Businesses - Essay Example The successes of prosperous businesses- Successful business that developed through TLS 10 Other importance of transformational leadership compared to other styles of leadership 13 Recommendations 16 Conclusion 17 Reference 19 Introduction- Transformational Leadership Style Leadership style has been classified into many different ways in the research field. In the recent years two forms of leadership style have been coalesced which are the transformational leadership and transactional leadership. It has been proved that transformational and transactional leadership are not mutually exclusive. Therefore leadership is defined as a process where an individual tends to influences individuals in order to achieve the set common goal (Northouse, 2009, p.3). The transformational leadership style mainly focuses on the future and is developmental. This form of leadership is most valued when task involves breaking deadlocks, creating order mainly out of order, initiating a change in the organisation and on the way of developing future leaders. This form of leadership has also been termed as relationship oriented, inspirational leadership and also charismatic leaders. The main motive of the transformational leader is to inspire the employees to go beyond or above their self interest (Krause, 2005, p.39). The transformational leader is known to be charismatic and their style usually revolves around the empowerment of the subordinates. Thus these leaders are often characterised as people who mainly articulates the realistic vision of the future, understand the difference that exists among the subordinates and stimulates them through intellectual manner. In countries such as Canada, Japan, United States, Austria and Taiwan the transformational leadership is viewed as the most positive form of leadership than any other form of leadership. Thus transformational leadership is often associated with the characteristic of being charisma which is often viewed as a desirable form of attitude and positive (Waite, 2007, p. 5). Like charismatic leadership, an effective transformational leadership also requires the ability to bring about a change and also challenge the status quo, is able to recognise the opportunities for the organisation and also for the employees, risk taker and should also encourage others to take risk. The transformational leadership often requires the ability to inspire a shared vision. They rally others for a common dream and are adept in envisioning the future of the employees and the organisation and also enlisting them to move towards the vision. A transformational leader should be able to set an example of commitment towards shared vision and values (Lussier & Achua, 2009, p.350). Importance of Transformat ional Leadership Styles and Advantages Transformational leadership style or the transformational leaders has proved to gain a high importance in business particularly when it comes to small business. A transformational leader is strongly related with the unit focused which measures the effectiveness if leadership. In a small business it is necessary that the leader needs to be effective and charismatic so that he is able to lead from the front and initiate the followers to adopt the same technique and take risk. Every business needs to take risk and it’s the leaders who initiate the members of the organisation. Since transformational leadership style is the most accepted and possess unique qualities suitable to run a business or organisation thus this form of leadership is very important. Employees who have the transformational leadership style tend to have a higher level of job performance than other members of the business. They usually have high level of

Monday, September 23, 2019

Human Relations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Human Relations - Essay Example Researchers emphasized culture, interpersonal relations, and group coherence as the determinants of worker performance. Before industrial revolution the work was mostly performed by individual workers. Any particular skill was undertaken by an individual and was time consuming. As a result the productivity was low. With the industrial revolution the nature of work and the role of the worker underwent major changes. With the arrival of machines and factories, the production increased. Along with raw materials and capital, labor was also considered a part of the manufacturing process. The employers never considered how productivity was influenced by a worker's mental needs. As a result, motivation, social relations and working conditions were never considered important. Nevertheless it affected productivity in a major way. This movement had many followers like Keith Davis, Chris Argyris, Fred Herzberg, and Rensis Likert who assumed the underlying employee-employer harmony. They attributed restriction of output to the poor communication between workers and managers, and inadequate attention to the human side of worker. Elton Mayo (1880-1949), a Harvard professor trained in psychopathology and other researchers from Harvard University initiated what have become known as the Hawthorne Studies at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company near Chicago. (The Human relations movement (circa 1929-1951))They wanted to study how the changes in physical working conditions affect employee productivity. The study revealed that even when the physical characteristics of the job like salary were declined, and employee complaints ignored, the productivity of the employees was not reduced. On the other hand there was an increase in productivity. This phenomenon was called as Hawthorne effect where the productivity of the employees who participate in the study increases only because of the attention they receive from the researchers. This discovery forms the basis of the human relations movement because it suggests that employees are highly motivated to work better when they feel important and when their work is recognized. Over the years Hawthorne effect has been successfully used by managers to increase productivity. Implementation of "self-study committees, announcing surprise audits, establishing task forces of various kinds, and in general, keeping the workers tied up with busy-work that has the appearance of ongoing research" was undertaken. Mayo stated that the reason workers are motivated by such things is that individuals have a deep psychological need to believe that their organization cares about them, is open, concerned, and willing to listen. (The Human relations movement (circa 1929-1951)) According to mayo there should be a friendly relation between the employers and workers. At the same time the employers should consider the human values first and not the quality of the work. The employees' opinion about their work and working conditions must be taken into consideration. Further any changes in the organization must take into consideration the employees' view. This became a predominant philosophy and many theories sprung up

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative Research Paper Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Comparative Research Paper - Assignment Example alyze the process of evolution, specifically when one is concerned about the behavioral changes and physiological responses of an organism to the variable evolutionary stressors. Thus, two main factors that are of interest in this discussion are the role of ecology and the adaptability. Ecology is defined as the combination of biota and abiotic features that are prevalent in a habitat. Thus, the distribution of a particular species population is determined by the environmental conditions of a particular place. For instance polar bears are only found in the snowcapped regions of polar area, similarly thermophiles are found near hydrothermal vents deep in the oceans. Naturally, all the organisms have the capacity to adapt to the varying environmental stressor, however, to what limit they can adapt varies. Adaptation can be carried out different levels, it may be due to a minor change in the behavior of an organism, or it may be due to alterations or mutations at the genomic level. In t his regard species or organisms that have the capacity to sustain the changes are considered to have an advantage in the strict competition (Martin, 1990). Plesiadapiformes are sometimes also considered as the mammals of archaic age; they are considered to be lagging behind the modern primates of today on the basis evolutionary characterization; however, they share a great degree of similarity with the primates of today, especially when there skeletons are compared. Plesiadaiformes are regarded as tree dwellers, however, they lacked the ability of fast locomotion like jumping and leaping, which is commonly found in the present day primates. Further, the fossil records of Plesiadapiformes show that their brain size was smaller than the primates of today, therefore, there behavior and the capacity to respond to stimuli was limited (Stanford, Allen, & Anton, 2012). Adapids are considered as the ancestors of lemurs, they were lower diurnal primates with a herbivore appetite. Fossil

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Womens’ Compulsive Obsession Essay Example for Free

Womens’ Compulsive Obsession Essay In â€Å"A Woman’s Beauty: Put Down or Power Source?† Susan ​ Sontag  ­ argues that women view beauty as an obligation and that they actually focus on their appearance more than who they are as a person. In the essay, Sontag provides the perspectives of both Christians and Greeks towards beauty and compares them to the superficial views of the present. Sontag stresses that women should direct their attention to other things rather than beauty. Beauty is put at such a high standard that women feel the need to be as beautiful as the women advertised. Basically, women endeavor to be appropriate and beautiful to attract men. Sontag also showcases that women believe that being beautiful will earn them a reputation and place in society, and that beauty brings power and success. According to Sontag, beauty is the only form of power that women are encouraged to seek. In our own time, beauty is administered as a form of self ­oppression. In the process of growing up, young women may forget how intelligent they are and their aspirations in life. A woman’s success in the society s depends on good looks, which are a great advantage in life.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Mind Body Relationship In Human Person Philosophy Essay

Mind Body Relationship In Human Person Philosophy Essay The mind-body problem has been a much discussed issue in the Philosophy of Mind. All those who undertake any study in consciousness, necessarily need to touch upon this subject. One of the unsettled puzzles is about whether consciousness is part of material or mental realm. It has challenged the scientists as well as philosophers to look for some solutions. They have proposed several theories to address the issue. Among several theories dualism and physicalism were the most discussed. There are some crucial questions regarding mind-body problem: such as; how do they interact, whether the mind and body differ not only in degree and nature but also in kind? The arrival of neuroscience with its several scientific experiments has radically challenged the understanding of relationship between mind and body and forced us to rethink our positions about it. Thus, there is a renewed vigour in studying about consciousness in modern times and it has thrown open several other ways of settling th is issue. This chapter will briefly discuss on how different philosophers perceived the relationship between mind and body in a person and critically analyse various theories of dualism and physicalism in detail and present their difficulties. The concluding part of the chapter will show the need to go beyond dualism and physicalism with the help of neuroscience. We begin our discussion with mind-body relationship in a person. 1.1 Mind-Body Relationship in a Person For many centuries, we have been trying to understand the mind-body relationship in a person. The difficulty behind explaining the relationship between mind-body in a person is that s/he is a dynamic entity.  [1]  Thus, one is in a continued mode of knowing oneself. There are several thinkers who hold the view that a person is composed of body and mind. At the same time there are also some thinkers who oppose this idea. Now we shall discuss the views of some philosophers. There are several ancient philosophers like Plato and Aristotle who expressed their views on mind-body relationship in a person. For Plato, human being is composed of body and soul. Body is nothing but a prison house into which his/her soul has been locked. His understanding of person is different from our understanding of human being.  [2]  For Plato, person belongs to intelligible world and human being belongs to sensible world. Secondly person can be transformed whereas human being cannot be because human being belongs to physical level of being.  [3]  Thus he says that a person, the subject of interest, is not a human being but rather a soul, an entity distinct from that of human being.  [4]  Here we can see a clear-cut distinction of soul and body in Platos thinking. Aristotle, on the contrary, saw the mind-body relationship from a completely different angle. He says that a person is a composite not of body and soul but of prime matter and the human soul which as a substantial form.  [5]  He does not perceive the distinction between mind and body; instead he makes the distinction between matter and form. Therefore, Aristotle understands body and soul as not of two complete beings in conflict with each other but complimenting each other because matter and form are inseparable in a primary substance. There are also modern philosophers like Hegel, Immanuel Kant and John Locke who understand the mind-body relationship quite differently. For Hegel, an individual is part of the larger life of the Mind. He says that, Mind or spirit, passes through dialectical stages of evolution, revealing itself as subjective mind, objective mind and absolute mind. The subjective mind expresses itself as soul, consciousness and spirit.  [6]  From the above statements it is very clear that he gives importance to mind alone. He has absorbed totally the body into mind; for he says, It (mind) embodies itself, creates a body for itself, and becomes a particular, individual soul.  [7]  Therefore what truly exists for him is mind and not body. However Immanuel Kant speaks about metaphysical dualism rather than substance dualism of the person. He sees person as a Transcendental Self because there is a level of self-awareness that is over and above the categories of normal philosophies. Human being is alone a rational being who has a will and a free choice of action. So Kant postulates person as a transcendental free being, an idea that the inner self is not bound by the laws of nature.  [8]  However, John Locke, being a modern philosopher understands human person as that of ancient philosophers. For him mind is the real person and body is only a possession.  [9]  He separates mind from body and shows that body is only a material reality. He says that, Every man has a property in his own person.   This no Body has any Right to but himself.  [10]  For him mind is the real person and in the real person the body aspect is integrated totally into it.  [11]   The philosophers have changed their focus in the recent years. They give more stress on the purpose of human life. They ask; what does it mean to be a human person? However, with the growing interest in neuroscience, the ontological question bounced back with new a quest. One of the forerunners and pioneers of this movement is Philip Clayton who brought back the same question with a new focus. Now we shall discus the extreme positions of mind-body relationship and their solutions. 1.2 Extreme Positions The Mind-Body relationship has been an unsettled question both for science and philosophy. It has been a herculean task for both scientists and philosophers, who were greatly involved in unlocking the issue of the relationship between mind and body. There are two sets of opposing ideologies proposed; namely dualism and physicalism. Most of the philosophers are divided on their opinions hence this issue seeks our utmost attentions. Here we shall examine these two positions in detail and see why we need to go beyond these divisions. As part of this session, 1.3 deals with substance dualism and property dualism and 1.4 tries to examine the critical appraisal of the mind body relationship. The second part begins in 1.5 which deals with physicalism. Let us begin with dualism. 1.3 Dualism Dualism simply means a condition of being double. It comes from the Latin word duo meaning two which denotes a state of two parts.  [12]  It was originally coined to highlight the co-eternal binary position; for example good and evil, body and mind, mental and material, dark and light etc. It is supported by several arguments.  [13]  In philosophy it is a world view that the world consists of or is explicable as two fundamental entities, such as body and mind, the condition of being double or duality.  [14]  From the point of theology, it speaks about that human being having two basic natures, the physical and spiritual. There are two kinds of dualism- substance dualism and property dualism. 1.3.1 Substance Dualism The substance dualism sees mind and body as two distinct and separate substances.  [15]  Several philosophers like Plato, Thomas Aquinas and Renà © Descartes too held a similar view. They see mind as something that is diametrically opposing body. The attribute of body is extension but at the same time they see that the body is passive; whereas the mind is thinking, active and free. The two substances are absolutely distinct and mind is without extension. Those who hold dualism say that they have a clear and distinct idea of themselves in so far as they are only a thinking and un-extended thing.  [16]  The distinction between body as material and mind as immaterial substance becomes a crucial point of discussion in substance dualism because they differ not only in kind but also in nature and degree. However it is a compelling concept because it gives us a hope of personal survival after death and also many religions hold this theory very dear to them.  [17]  We can see th is distinction in Indian philosophy too. The Sankhaya philosophy holds that there are two entities; namely Purusha  [18]  and Prakrti  [19]  which are the two constitutive elements of the world. However dualism is more clearly and intelligibly spelled by the western thinkers. Now we shall discuss briefly about two predominant philosophers: Plato, from the ancient schools and Renà © Descartes, from the modern thinkers, who represent the rest of the dualistic thinkers of their time. Platonic Dualism Platonic Dualism can be seen very clear in Phaedo, one of his dialogues. In the dialogue, Plato accepts the two ultimate principles; namely body and mind. Here his dualism is metaphysical in nature because he deals with immortality of mind or soul.  [20]  He calls mind as soul.  [21]  For him, the mind is immortal and body is mortal.  [22]  The mind is the one which differentiates the living from the dead. He sees the body as a prison in which the soul is confined. In the imprisoned life, the mind is compelled to investigate the truth by means of the organs of perception of the body. Forms are universals and represent the essences of sensible particulars. Plato says that we do not see reality as a whole. We perceive equal things, but not equality itself. We perceive beautiful things but not beauty itself. To have insights into the pure essences of things, the mind must struggle to disassociate itself from the body as far as possible and turn its attention towards the cont emplation of not only to intelligible things but also to invisible things. Plato defines death as the separation of soul and body, and the state of being dead as state in which soul and body exist separately from one another.  [23]  Thus for Plato, the dualism of mind and body are opposite in nature. He establishes the distinction of mind and body by establishing the distinction between the immortality of mind and mortality of body. He proves the immortality of soul through Argument from Opposites, Argument from Recollection and the Argument from Affinity.  [24]  These three arguments are keys to establish his dualism. Plato defends his immortality of soul from the Argument from Opposites. He says that things that have an opposite come to be from their opposite. For example, if something comes to be taller, it must come to be taller from having been shorter; if something comes to be heavier, it must come to be so by first having been lighter. These processes can go in either direction. Similarly he says that dying comes from living, living must come from dying. Thus, we must come to life again after we die. During the interim between death and rebirth the soul exists apart from the body and has the opportunity to glimpse the Forms unmingled with matter in their pure and undiluted fullness. Thus the cycle of life goes on. The second defence for his immortality of soul is the Argument from Recollection. For Plato, soul must exist prior to birth because we can recollect things that could not have been learned in this life. According to Plato, we recognize unequal things and strive for equality. To notice inequality, we must comprehend what equality is. In order to know what equality is, we must have the prior knowledge so that we can understand the form of equality. Hence, the soul must have existed prior to birth to the form of equality.  [25]   The third defence for his immortality of soul is the Argument from Affinity. Plato claims that composite things are more liable to be destroyed than things that are simple. The forms  [26]  are true unities and therefore least likely ever to be annihilated. Further Plato says that invisible things such as forms are not apt to be disintegrated, whereas visible things are susceptible to decay and corruption. Since the body is visible and composite, it is subjected to decomposition. As against to body, the soul is invisible part of forms and purifies itself by having no more association with the body than necessary. Since the invisible things are the durable things, the soul, being invisible, must outlast the body. Further, soul becomes form-like immortal and survives the death of the body.  [27]  Through these three arguments Plato proves the immortality of soul or mind whereby he makes the distinction between body and mind; thus he proves the dualism. However Platos arguments are highly challenged even by his own disciple Aristotle. Firstly, the Argument from Opposites applies only to things that have an opposite and, as Aristotle notes, substances have no contraries.  [28]  Further, even if life comes from what is itself not alive, it does not follow that the living human comes from the union of a dead (i.e. separated) soul and a body. The principle that everything comes to be from its opposite via a two-directional process cannot hold up to critical scrutiny. Secondly, one becomes older from having been younger, there is no corresponding reverse process leading the older to become younger. If aging is a uni-directional process, perhaps dying is as well. The Arguments from Recollection and Affinity, on the other hand, presuppose the existence of forms and are therefore no more secure than the forms themselves. Thus these criticisms show that we cannot simply take the prior existence of soul as it is true. Therefore Platos und erstanding is more of metaphysical and bit of vague because there are several unanswered questions like things which have two different natures interact. At the same time we acknowledge, he has brought certain clarity in understanding dualism with clear proofs. Now we shall discuss the dualism proposed by Descartes. Cartesian Dualism. Renà © Descartes is one of the modern Philosophers who has extensively dealt with dualism. For Descartes, body and mind are distinct substances and the immaterial mind is somehow associated with the material body.  [29]  Substance dualism gets more predominance in Cartesian dualism.  [30]  He says substance dualism goes along with the view that the identity of a person over time is constituted by the identity overtime of this substance, and in versions of the doctrine that countenance life after death, it is survival of this substance, often called soul perhaps along with certain memory and psychological continuities, that constitutes the survival of the person.  [31]  The idea that there is a fundamental difference in kind between the mind and body can be spelled out in two broadly different ways.  [32]  Descartes held that minds and bodies are substances of distinct kind that, in the case of living human beings, happen to be intimately related.  [33]  The disti nction between the body and mind is: the body is spacial, public and has material qualities; and mind is non-spacial, private and has distinctively mental qualities. By spacial, he means that it occupies some space and time for its existence. It is public which means it is visible and we can experience it. When he says that the body has material qualities, he means that it has several qualities by which the substance expresses itself and reveals it to others and through which we come to know the things.  [34]  Firstly, in contrast to body, the mind occupies no space therefore it can be anywhere at any time. In short it is beyond space and time. Secondly it possesses mental qualities of life feeling, perceiving, experience joys and sorrows of life etc. Thirdly the mind is private because we cannot perceive it.  [35]  Descartes believes that the world is made up of substances. A substance is not a thing as we think like water or coal, or paint. For Descartes substance is an in dividual thing or an entity. He says that substances are different; they are complex. He gives importance to human being and his/her rationality. He claimed that, human rationality could not be a physical process.  [36]   The dualism of Descartes sounds good; however, there are certain conceptual difficulties and seemingly insurmountable problems. One of the crucial issues is the interaction of mind-body which is totally opposing each other in nature and kind. If minds are as distinct from material things as Descartes claims, it seems at least paradoxical: how can then the two sorts of substances interact. In this case property dualism seems to solve some of the problems which substance dualism cannot. 1.3.2 Property Dualism Property dualism maintains that mind is not only one kind of physical substance, having physical or behavioral-material-functional properties but also nonphysical behaviorally-materially-functionally in-eliminable and irreducible properties.  [37]  The advantage of property dualism over substance dualism is that it avoids the casual interaction problem because this theory has no need to countenance causal interaction between material and immaterial or spatial and non-spatial substance, since it admits only that there is only material substance.  [38]  It also need not appeal to Gods divine abilities in order to account for mind-body interaction or the objectivity of the perceived world. It has an edge over materialism that it provides for the intuitive distinction between body and mind by positing a difference in their properties, and especially in the metaphysical categories of their properties. Property dualism holds that without both properties, we cannot satisfactorily ex plain the psychological phenomena. The in-eliminable and irreducible properties are said to be essential to mind because they are responsible for experience, feeling, object directionality and intentionality of psychological states.  [39]  This property dualism could be understood in three ways; namely Theory of Attribute, Anomalous Monism and Non-reductive materialism. Theory of Attribute The first way of understanding the property dualism is through Spinozas theory of attribute. Attributes are part of Spinozas metaphysics.  [40]  For Spinoza God is the only Substance since Gods essence involves existence. He says that, God exists and, moreover, only God can fulfill the conditions for substance, therefore there can be only one substance.  [41]  It is a mistake to assert that mind and body as substances because they are not fully self-subsistent, but are dependent modes or manifestations of God. For him, A true substance must be that which contains within itself, as part of its essence, the complete explanation of its nature and existence.  [42]  This God has infinite attributes. But human being can know only two attributes; they are namely thought and extension. By attribute what Spinoza understands is that the intellect perceives substance as constituting its essence. For him, the attribute of thought is attached to mind and extension to the body. He says that the object of idea constituting the human mind is the body which is certain mode of extension. He says that Therefore, the minds power of understanding extends only as far as that which this idea of the body contains within itself, or which follows there from. Now this idea of the body involves and expresses no other attributes of God than extension and thought.  [43]  This attribute enables us to understand and talk about an extended world and a thinking world in terms of which we understand bodies and minds. He partly invented this theory of attribute for the sake of solving an outstanding question raised by Descartes philosophy of mind. If the mind is, or belongs to, a separate substance from that of the body, then how does the body-mind interact? In order to avoid the problem, Spinoza considered that mind and body is one and the same thing under the attribute of extension and thought. Though the Cartesian notion of dualism was logical, it had constant problems. It coul d not substantially explain the relationship between substance constructed as individual and substance constructed as matter or stuff. But Spinozas explanation came very close to a satisfactory theory.  [44] Anomalous Monism Anomalous monism is proposed by Donald Davidson, who is an American pragmatist. Anomalous monism is a philosophical thesis about the mind- body relationship. This theory has twofold divisions; namely mental and physical.  [45]  It states that mental events are identical with physical events. Events are causes in virtue of the properties that they instantiate, unless mental properties and physical properties are also identified, questions about the causal redundancy of the mental reappear at the level of properties.  [46]  But Davidson says that the mental events are anomalous, that is to say these mental events are not regulated by strict physical laws. Hence, he proposed an identity theory of mind without the reductive bridge laws associated with the type-identity theory. He understands the ontological nature of the relationship of mental events especially propositional attitudes with physical actions. Davidson accepts that there is ontology of events where events, which may seem to be opposed to objects or states of affairs, are the fundamental, irreducible entities of the mental and physical universe. He also believes that event-individuation must be done on the basis of causal powers. He further argues in favour of the individualization of events on the basis of spatio-temporal localization. According to this view, all events are caused by and cause other events and for him this is the defining characteristics of what an event is. The important aspect of Davidsons ontology of events for anomalous monism is that an event has an indefinite number of properties or aspects. He says that a very simple physical action like switching on a light has a large variety of mental events especially reasoning; for example recognizing the need of light, making a choice to switch on etc. For Davidson, a particular reason causes a particular action. Thus it explains that reasons are causes and actions are effects of the causal efficacy of the mental events.  [47]   However there are also people who are highly critical about it. One of the criticisms about the anomalous monism is whether mental events are ever causes of physical events in virtue of their mental properties. Gibb says that If the mental properties of a mental event do make a causal difference, then unless one admits systematic causal over determination, this is to violate the causal closure principle, for according to it an events physical properties are sufficient for the causal effects that event has within the physical domain.  [48]  It is otherwise the mental properties of an event make no causal difference to the physical effects that the event has, then mental properties have the status of epiphenomena. He observes that Consequently, to identify mental events with physical events whilst distinguishing mental properties from physical properties are not to remove but merely to relocate the problem of mental causation.  [49]  For this reason, the non-reductive physicali st who identifies token mental events with physical events but maintains a property dualism can plausibly be accused of property epiphenomenalism. Secondly a strict law cannot be formulated in the same terms as the causal claim because causally related events must have descriptions under which they instantiate a strict law. Similarly, the causal claim and the relevant covering law cannot be formulated in purely mental terms because any mental event that causes a physical event must be characterizable in physical terms and therefore be physical. Hence, mental events are physical events. On the other hand, as there are no strict psychophysical laws that would support the reduction of mental concepts to physical concepts, anomalous monism leads to the rejection of any conceptual reduction.  [50] Non-reductive Materialism Non-reductive materialism represents the current orthodoxy in Western Philosophy thinking about the ontological status of the mind. The proponents of non-reductive materialism hold that the mental is ontologically part of the material world; yet, mental properties are causally efficacious without being reducible to physical properties.  [51]  Even though the mind itself is really physical, our mentalist explanatory scheme is not reducible to physics but is instead autonomous. They hold both irreducibility of the mind as well physical nature of the mind as realism. They are also arguing that they are fundamentally unstable combination. The non-reductionist distinguishes mental kinds from physical kinds, where the mental includes sensation and thought, and the physical is roughly the domain of the physical sciences, including neurophysiology. But those who oppose it say that the whole question of explanatory autonomy became a topical philosophical issue which threatened the reducti onism because there was a general acceptance of materialist theories. It was broadly a metaphysical doctrine. It would seem to follow that all phenomena are susceptible to physical explanation, and if this is true then what can the ontological status be of those concepts, categories and theories which fall outside the domain of the physical sciences?  [52]  Then the non-reductive materialist may have to give up all pretense of having a realist view of mental terms, giving up all talk of real but non-physical mental properties. It seems that you cannot combine Physicalism with realism about the mental and at the same time hold out for the autonomy of the mental. However non-reductive materialism could be still seen as fundamentally a stable position. 1.4 An Appraisal of Mind-Body Relations Though Descartes argues for the mind-body dualism,  [53]  the sort of dualism for which he argues, entails certain conceptual difficulties and seemingly insuperable problems. The main difficulty with mental activity is that, as Descartes understands them, how do the mind and matter interact. If minds are as distinct from material things as Descartes claims, it seems at least paradoxical that the two sorts of substances should interact. The question of the relation between the mental and the physical can be posed equivalently as about mental and ph

Thursday, September 19, 2019

The Flute Virtuosity: Johann George Tromlitz Essay -- The Gewandhaus Or

Accounts written of the late Johann George Tromlitz paint him as a bitter man; he was easily upset when writers neglected to mention his influential work on the flute. He reacts to these sentiments in the forward of one of his treatises, The Virtuoso Flute-Player (1791). Tromlitz wanted to be known as a master of the flute; he believed that his ideals were vital to the flute’s development and performance. He wrote several treatises where he speaks of the correct construction and performance of the flute, the core of his ideal. Although disputed, Tromlitz’s long-lasting impact on the flute community is absolutely indispensable: his treatises guide performers to a great extent, his compositions provide standard and well-written repertoire for the flute, and his flutes themselves mark the improvements that have been essential to the development of the modern flute. Tromlitz was born in 1725 in the small district of Reinsdorf in northern Germany. He completed his studies at the University at Leipzig in 1750, and soon after he received his degree in law, he started to build his own new set of flutes that were intended to dramatically change the construction process of flutes. He assumed the principal chair of the Große Concerte (now the Gewandhaus Orchestra) in 1754 until 1776. The Gewandhaus Orchestra was named after the concert hall in Leipzig where its main performances were and still are held. Tromlitz left the orchestra to dedicate his time to the creation of his new instruments, the teaching of new students, and the compositions he was writing for the flute repertoire. By leaving the orchestra, Tromlitz began to discover the true worth of improving the flute. The flute was being used in the orchestra on a more freque... (accessed Jan. 24, 2014). Grove Music Online, S.v. â€Å"Tromlitz, Johann George,† by Ardal Powell. http://www. (accessed Jan. 25, 2014). Powell, Ardal. The Flute. China: Yale University Press, 2002. Reilly, Edward R. â€Å"Quantz and the Transverse Flute: Some Aspects of His Practice and Thought Regarding the Instrument.† Early Music 24, no. 3 (Aug. 1997), http://www. (accessed Jan. 24, 2014). Toff, Nancy. The Flute Book: A Complete Guide for Students and Performers. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1985. Tromlitz, Johann George. Sonata fà ¼r Flà ¶te und Cembalo in Ut majeur. Mainz, Germany: Schott Musik International, 2000. Tromlitz, Johann George, Ardal Powell, trans. The Keyed Flute. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. ———, ———, trans. The Virtuoso Flute-Player. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

The Importance of Censorship :: Television Media TV Censorship

The Importance of Censorship As new technologies evolve and become a part of our daily lives, so do television shows and what people are allowed to view on a regular basis. Censorship, a word that seems to be causing quite some controversy over certain people may not be such a bad idea. As America has seen, a countless amount of people have been known to complain about censorship on television. Although this seems to be a problem to some, maybe the real question to be asked is, is there enough censorship of television? Many families agree that certain rated R movies should not be shown to young children and only certain shows should be censored to an extent, yet they do not see the significant effect that regular television shows really have on their children.As a child grows, more and more statistics are proving that they are being exposed to too many shows that should be censored. Many studies have concluded that young children are most affected by what they see on television (Dritz, Russel 1996). For example, a child that watches a cartoon with a lot of violence or tunes into their parents favorite soap opera might find an increasingly amount of exposure to violent acts and sexual content. Children are very vulnerable to such influences and often do not know the difference between right and wrong and the difference between reality and fantasy (Dritz, Russel 1996). As the years go on and television seems to be too censored to most, studies have continued to prove the increasing numbers of children associated with violence and sexual behavior. Although a seemingly older statistic, the Neilson Index averaged American children to watch 18,000 television murders before he or she graduated from high school (Tucker, Larry A. 1988). Could this be a reason for an increasing amount of murders and violent acts among children today?

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Scottish Sports :: essays research papers fc

After the dethronement of Louis XVI, politics for the first time in France had become an issue for the French to systemize and regulate. No longer did the citizens have to follow the will of the kings’ â€Å"godly design† but now would be represented by a republic of the people. Very quickly political factions began to emerge across France. The two major political factions of the Convention were the Jacobins and the Girondins, which held very opposite beliefs of the future of the monarchy. However, both had a strong ambition to gain supremacy in the Convention and to ultimately control the direction of the Revolution. Although in doing so the factions had to gain the support of the Marais, the group that did not belong to any faction. The first issue for the elected deputies of France was to determine the fate of the former King of France, Louis XVI. The strong will of the Jacobin’s beliefs and the ineffective representation of Girondin philosophy strengthened J acobin support and ultimately determined the death of Louis XVI.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  All three political groups were not the same as the ones found in today’s political campaigns. These historic parties had, â€Å"no party machinery, no party funds, no party discipline on voting and in most cases no party platform. They were at best loosely-connected groups of men who had been friends, who shared political ideas, or who were thrown together on specific issues.† However the citizens believed them to be their representatives in the new regime that would debate for the good of the country based on the new principles. The Jacobin faction was formerly the Society of the Friends of the Constitution and was made up of intelligent bourgeoisie. After the Assembly moved to Paris the group enlarged and rented the former residence of the Dominican monks which were known as the Jacobins, a name eventually inherited by the society. The Jacobins strongly supported power in Paris, and heavily pushed egalitarian aspirations. The Jacobins firmly belie ved that their group represented the people. During the course of the trial of Louis XVI the approximately one hundred and ten members of the Mountain (as they were referred to in the convention because of their choice of the higher seating) believed that Louis should be â€Å"judged by the highest tribunal in the land, the people in the revolution on August the 10,1792.† Their final conclusion was that Louis was guilty of treason and that he should be punished by way of the guillotine.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Advantages And Disadvantages Of An Armed Public

It is believed that the safest nations have very strict gun control laws. This strong gun control laws enhances a lower crime rate but that is not always the case. Virginia’s homicide rate is low among other states like the state of Maryland, where unless one is a police or federal officer it is illegal to carry a handgun. (Joyner, 2004).Many will argue that carrying firearms does not make America more dangerous but instead much safer. With a positive thought, if everyone were armed, crime would drop to an all time low. It's just a matter of weather you are educated in this matter or just shooting from the hip. (Kopel, 1995).The result of this is that a law-abiding citizen can get licenses to carry concealed firearms. With the gun crazies and their paranoia such as crazy shooting similar to the massacre at Virginia Tech, and the violence nannies and their hysteria such as drug related shootings, the issue of legalizing or not remains an ever more complicated mess.This paper ad dresses this issue by relating the advantages and disadvantages of an armed public.Pros Of An Armed Public Most legislatures have failed to reach a compromise on some significant issues like concealed carry gun laws and the issue continue bewildering. According to Al Marzouqi on The Badger Herald (2007), he believes that the ban on concealed carry does not automatically translate to relatively low crime rate, which is an important aspect of the discussion.The absence of crime is not a proof that a policy is working. Laws to restrain criminals’ form acquiring weapons do not stop them especially when they are bound on breaking the law. All a ban on concealed carry does is to create a false sense of security that is all too often shattered by a tragedy and prevents law abiding citizens from defending themselves in such situations.Secondly In a small town, backup is sometimes an absent luxury; good citizens with personal firearms can save the situation. Thirdly many lives might b e saved, just by the presence of a gun without necessarily meaning presence of the police.The law does not state that police should always be of aid if called or requested for any help. Police are not required to help and they cannot be sued if they DON'T help.California's Government Code, Sections 821, 845, and 846 states, in part: â€Å"Neither a public entity or a public employee [may be sued] for failure to provide adequate police protection or service, failure to prevent the commission of crimes and failure to apprehend criminals.†Lastly the number of unregistered guns is actually unknown, but it is probably in the multi-millions like the registered ones.These guns would be most difficult to locate, though readily available to the criminals. Handguns are made everywhere too because they are legal in some states and therefore a booming business, so to be successful in eliminating guns in the US, one must shut down the entire world's ammunition industries and their sales c hannels, which is basically impossible.Therefore the issue of not legalizing does not decrease the number of illegal arms, the criminals would still be armed and lack of the legal guns in a system lives the ordinary citizen disarmed.It is logical that a bully with a gun would not attack someone they knew were armed. Guns reduce the number of attempted crimes because criminals are uncertain which potential victims can defend themselves. States with the largest increases in gun ownership also have the largest drops in violent crimes according to Lott on More guns, less crime in 2000.Criminals are deterred by higher penalties. Just as higher arrest and conviction rates deter crime, so does the risk that someone committing a crime will confront on someone able to defend him or herself.The horrific shooting in Arkansas occurred in one of the few places where having guns was already illegal. These laws risk creating situations in which the good guys cannot defend themselves from the bad o nes. (Lott, 2000)Cons Of An Armed Public A gun owner is more likely to accidentally shoot an innocent person than shoot the burglar because they are highly annoyed at the time of the conflict. Secondly allowing people to carry concealed weapons brings about the likelihood of them falling into the wrong hands. Laws concealed carry state that a person applying for a permit must satisfy an existing criterion.The proposed criteria include age restrictions, background checks, legal citizenship, gun safety classes and mental stability. It is believed that with such procedures, the risks of guns falling into the wrong hands would diminish but this is simply not the case. There are several fundamental flaws with these limitations, including the fault on the licensing body.Thirdly laws to legalize owning of firearms would mean that if individuals meet all criteria for the permit, then the state cannot under any circumstances, withhold it from them unless there exist other laws giving a super vising body the right to withhold a permit from a qualified person.Lastly, release of arms to the public means that they will be highly accessible to unauthorized persons such as children in a family setting who can be able to access majority of the family recourses in exception of the firearms. According to HRW in 2006, between 1985 and 1994, murders committed by children with guns more than tripled in America.Crime rates in England and Australia England has strict gun control but their firearms related crime statistic has been steadily increasing. Originally homicides did not increase with the invention of firearms, but instead seems to have fallen sharply as guns became more efficient and widely owned in England. (Kates, 2002).There are enough historical facts that refute claims that guns cause homicide. Violent crime did not increase with increased gun ownership nor did it decline with decreased gun ownership. Firearms closely correlate with car ownership than firearms ownership in England and Swaziland. Like demographics, Geographic’s of gun ownership relate inversely to crime.Conclusion Concealed carry permits should be issued to those who qualify and be revoked when misused. This would also mean that people are not guaranteed permits and if permitted the state should have a right to withhold on matters of security concerns. Responsibilities do go with rights, and many people often conveniently forget that little tradeoff.Gun violence still remains unsolved because it’s unpredictable and uncontrollable.In line with Kate on the issue of if guns cause crime, the best currently available evidence indicates that general gun availability has no measurable net positive effect on crime rates. Guns availability has many effects on violence increases or decreases with the effects largely canceling each other.References: Al Marzouqi, A. (2007, October 30). The Badger Herald. Retrieved 20th July 2008 from: ness_is_a_warm_.phpHuman Rights Watch (HRW). (2006). Juvenile Crime Rates: Retrieved 20th July 2008 from:, J. (2004, July 15). Virginia Gun Laws: Outside the Beltway (OTB). Retrieved 20th July 2008 from:, D. (2002, July 22). Do Guns Cause Crime: History News Network. Retrieved 20th July 2008 from:, D. (1995). International Perspective on Gun Control: New York Law School Journal. Retrieved 20th July 2008 from:, J. (2000). More Guns, Less Crime: Understanding Crime and Gun control: university of Chicago.

Accepting Rejection and Rejecting Acceptance Essay

Dreamers are most likely to be the kinds of people who are prone to rejections and disappointments. I was once a dreamer who aimed to reach for certain heights which I believed were essential to my so-called â€Å"fulfilled life†. When I was young, I was in love with stories as poets are obsessed with their muses. There was something sensuously tempting about the idea of creating a world where your personal ideals exists and the place you have always longed to belong with is just around the corner of your imagination. I create stories in my head with such a passionate gesture that I would place a pen and paper beside my pillow and even talk to my characters alone in my room. I enjoyed conversing with their silent responses and violent whispers which led to a gradual creation of plots and conflicts. They became my friends and literary partners who helped me out with the stories that I wish to tell. My room suddenly became a place where stories transpire and manifest themselves on typewritten manuscripts. Every time I take a look at my drafts, they seemed to show a particular eagerness to be shown out there in public. I could not help but smile and absorb the eagerness too. When I was 16 years old, I took all my guts to show my four of my friends a freshly-written manuscript and asked them to give it a quick scan. They were just my friends and not even a publisher but it had been one of the most thrilling and suspenseful time of my life. The next day, two of my friends told me that they were not really that happy with my work. They thought it was boring. See more:  Manifest Destiny essay The other two did not even dare finish it. My story obviously was not good enough. However, I never lost hope. I knew I had a great story to tell filled with remarkable characters that were destined to be perpetually remembered such as Harper Lee’s Atticus Finch and Mark Twain’s Tom Sawyer. I knew there was something special about these people that I wish to free from my imagination and introduce to the real world. But I have failed them. I began to feel like a loser who pretended to be Superman by promising these creatures freedom from the clutches of a writer’s sporadic imagination. That depressing day gave me the realization that not only my work was rejected. It was the entirety of my ideal world that they have dismissed and discarded as something that was unacceptable and boring. I was a wreck. Suddenly, I began to despise the room which once seemed to provide me all the gladness in the world. Apparently, I have expected a lot from myself. I gave myself and these characters false hopes that one day we would be known for our uniqueness and greatness. Obviously, the world does not revolve that way. It rotates the other way around against the normal rotation of an insipid clock. Five years later, when I was trying to clean up my room, I visited my old box where my old manuscript was and started reading it after a very long time. I could not help but laugh about how amateur it had been at that time. The world that I have created in that story is absolutely not the world that I imagine to be ideal in the present time. The characters appeared to be some kids taken out directly from a teen flick. Rejection plays a brutally important role in a person’s development and growth. Without criticisms, one cannot experience the beautiful feeling of maturity. Truly, I have lost a great deal of positivism and childish enthusiasm when the first story that I dared to print for my friends received negative reviews. I have not printed and showed another story to someone for a long time after that incident. I have lost my personal communication with my characters. Meaning to say, they have stayed in their world as I have stayed in mine. That rejection made me realize that being too overly passionate about something is not healthy as it can ruin an aspect in your life that is essential. I could have gone mad if I have stayed drowned in my own pool of rejections. However, I finally came into realization that creating your own world by writing stories does not give you an assurance that other people are willing to share that world with you. Most of the time, you just have to keep that wonderful place hidden because it is your—and yours alone.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

The History Of Why Photovoltaics Environmental Sciences Essay

Energy security is one of the major challenges confronting world in the twenty-first century. It has been cited that about 20 % of the planetary population do non hold entree to electricity [ 1 ] . In add-on, it is predicted that the planetary ingestion of electricity will increase by about 50 % by 2035 [ 2 ] . For a sustainable hereafter, fulfilling the demand for energy should be accompanied with the decrease of CO2 emanations [ 3 ] by energy systems. Consequently, this brings about concerns in sing fossil fuels based systems as an option for fulfilling the turning energy demand. Renewable energy beginnings have been considered as being the solution for this uprising energy demand. Of recent, these systems have gained a batch of popularity and the energy coevals from renewables have been predicted to duplicate from 2010 to 2035 [ 2 ] . Harmonizing to some anticipations, renewables have the potency of catering for about one tierce of entire planetary electricity coevals by 2035 [ 1 ] . Photovoltaics ( PV ) is a rapid-growing market in the field of renewable energy, and this tendency is expected to go on in the close hereafter [ 4 ] [ 5 ] . Solar Energy is the most abundant and most every bit distributed renewable energy beginning worldwide. As such, PV can be considered as a major and the most promising renewable energy beginning. The advantages of PV over the conventional energy beginnings are listed below: PV systems are environmentally friendly ( C emanation free ) Solar energy has, by far, the highest natural and proficient potencies even for today ‘s engineering PV warrants long-run, care free, quiet and dependable year-round operation It can be operated as a grid connected system [ 6 ] or as an off grid system, supplying electricity even in stray parts [ 5 ] [ 7 ] Of class, these systems are accompanied with a few reverses. Main disadvantages of the PV are listed below: Large country demand Electricity coevals is limited to daytime ( it can non run at dark ) The cost of electricity generated from a PV system is still non comparable with fossil fuels, which indicates a trust on strong governmental policies [ 8 ] PV systems are classified into three depending on the photoactive stuff used and the degree of commercial adulthood: first-generation solar cells ( Crystalline Silicon ( c-Si ) ) , second-generation solar cells ( Thin Film Solar Cells ( TFSC ) ) and 3rd coevals solar cells ( Concentrating PV ( CPV ) , organic PV and fresh constructs ) . In general, an overpowering per centum of solar cells are fabricated from Si. First coevals solar cells dominate the current PV market with a portion of over 80 % of the entire PV market [ 5 ] [ 9 ] . However, 2nd coevals solar cells ( TFSC ) promise the highest possible for low cost fabrication and dependable energy beginning [ 5 ] [ 10 ] . Besides that, c-Si deficit which begun in 2005 and lasted through 2008 forced the industry to look for options, therefore the market for Thin Film PV begun to turn quickly [ 9 ] . Advantages of TFSC over wafer based solar cells are listed below: As the thickness of the semiconducting material bed is much dilutant in TFSC compared to wafer based solar cells, the recombination losingss are much less The fabrication cost of TFSC is well lower than that of wafer based solar cells [ 10 ] TFSC provides us with wider choice of stuffs compared to wafer based solar cells [ 10 ] , therefore bespeaking flexibleness of TFSC compared to c-Si solar cells However, surveies indicate that even with all these advantages the laterality of the c-Si solar cells will still stay for the coming 10 to 20 old ages unless a sudden addition in TFSC efficiencies is achieved in the close hereafter [ 9 ] , [ 11 ] . Undoubtedly, low efficiencies along with debasement over clip ( decrease in power end product ) are considered as the most influential drawbacks in the development of TFSC [ 5 ] , [ 10 ] . Surveies have shown that the levelized cost of the electricity ( LCOE ) generated by PV systems are extremely dependent on PV faculty efficiency [ 12 ] , therefore increasing the efficiency of PV systems has become an active country of research. Amorphous Si ( a-Si ) is one of the widely used stuffs in TFSC [ 9 ] , [ 13 ] . However, a-Si solar cells suffer from low efficiencies [ 14 ] which can be attributed to its set spread non being close to the optimal value ( around 1.4 electron volt ) . Besides, the thickness of the photoactive stuff in TFPV is normally really low which has a effect of take downing its light soaking up capablenesss. Extensive work on PV cells has besides been carried out over the old ages with a focal point on new stuffs and cell constellations [ 15-17 ] . Driving efficiencies up and/or cut downing cost, by technology stuffs for optimal belongingss and constellations have been the chief purpose of such researches ( ref ) . For illustration, a well-known agencie s of bettering the efficiency of a-Si TFSC is to replace a-Si with a semiconducting material like Gallium arsenide ( GaAs ) or Indium phosphide ( InP ) that has a close optimal bandgap [ 13 ] , [ 14 ] , [ 15 ] . Another attack is to implement a multi-junction solar cell [ 13 ] , [ 14 ] , [ 18 ] . However, besides those options, it is besides possible to better efficiency by heightening the light pin downing possible inside the cell [ 19-23 ] . The latter option is the chief focal point for this research. [ 1 ] IEA, â€Å" World Energy Outlook 2012, † 2012. [ 2 ] EIA, â€Å" Annual Energy Outlook 2012, † 2012. [ 3 ] G. Doucet, â€Å" Deciding the Futureaˆ? : Energy Policy Scenarios to 2050, † 2007. [ 4 ] IEA PVPS, â€Å" Trends in photovoltaic applications, † Survey study of selected IEA states between 1992 and 2011, 2012. [ 5 ] IRENA, â€Å" Solar Photovoltaics, † Renewable Energy Technologies: Cost Analysis Series, vol. 1, no. 4, 2012. [ 6 ] M. a. Eltawil and Z. Zhao, â€Å" Grid-connected photovoltaic power systems: Technical and possible problems-A reappraisal, † Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 112-129, Jan. 2010. [ 7 ] W. Hoffmann, â€Å" PV solar electricity industry: Market growing and position, † Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 90, no. 18-19, pp. 3285-3311, Nov. 2006. [ 8 ] N. Johnstone, I. Hascic, and D. Popp, â€Å" Renewable energy policies and technological invention: Evidence based on patent counts, † Environmental and Resource Economics, 2008. [ 9 ] A. Jager-Waldau, â€Å" Thin Film Photovoltaics: Markets and Industry, † International Journal of Photoenergy, vol. 2012, no. two, pp. 1-6, 2012. [ 10 ] S. Hegedus, â€Å" Thin movie solar faculties: the low cost, high throughput and various option to Si wafers, † aˆÂ ¦ in photovoltaics: research and applications, pp. 393-411, 2006. [ 11 ] R. Swanson, â€Å" A vision for crystalline Si photovoltaics, † aˆÂ ¦ in photovoltaics: Research and Applications, pp. 443-453, 2006. [ 12 ] X. Wang, L. Kurdgelashvili, J. Byrne, and A. Barnett, â€Å" The value of faculty efficiency in take downing the levelized cost of energy of photovoltaic systems, † Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 4248-4254, Dec. 2011. [ 13 ] R. W. Miles, â€Å" Photovoltaic solar cells: Choice of stuffs and production methods, † Vacuum, vol. 80, no. 10, pp. 1090-1097, Aug. 2006. [ 14 ] M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, â€Å" Solar cell efficiency tabular arraies ( version 40 ) , † no. version 40, pp. 606-614, 2012. [ 15 ] J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, a J. Heeger, and G. C. Bazan, â€Å" Efficiency sweetening in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by treating with methane series dithiols. , † Nature stuffs, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 497-500, Jul. 2007. [ 16 ] F. Report, â€Å" Hybrid Nanorod-Polymer Solar Cell Hybrid Nanorod-Polymer Solar Cell Final Report, † no. August, 2003. [ 17 ] I. Gur, N. A. Fromer, M. L. Geier, and A. P. Alivisatos, â€Å" from Solution, † vol. 310, no. October, pp. 462-465, 2005. [ 18 ] M. Bosi and C. Pelosi, â€Å" The Potential of III-V Semiconductors as Terrestrial Photovoltaic Devices, † no. June 2006, pp. 51-68, 2007. [ 19 ] D. Zhou and R. Biswas, â€Å" Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin movie solar cells, † Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 103, no. 9, p. 093102, 2008. [ 20 ] J.-Y. Chen, â€Å" Improvement of photovoltaic efficiency utilizing 3D photonic-crystal enhanced light caparison and soaking up, † Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 43-48, Oct. 2011. [ 21 ] M. Wellenzohn and R. Hainberger, â€Å" Light caparison by backside diffraction grates in Si solar cells revisited, † vol. 20, no. January, pp. 2208-2212, 2012. [ 22 ] S. B. Mallick, M. Agrawal, and P. Peumans, â€Å" Optimum visible radiation pin downing in ultra-thin photonic crystal crystalline Si solar cells, † vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 300-305, 2010. [ 23 ] X. Sheng, J. Liu, I. Kozinsky, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, â€Å" Efficient light pin downing construction in thin movie Si solar cells, † 2010 35th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp. 001575-001576, Jun. 2010.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Individual, team and racquet athletics Essay

Sport contains mainly perceptual motor skills so it is important to select the correct skill for the situation. The process used to select the correct skill is called the information processing system or the DCR process, because we Detect information, Compare it with previous experiences and then react. Welford said that all information is taken in as stimuli through our senses. It is then stored in the short term memory before being sorted, if the stimulus is relevant to the current skill then it is stored in the short term memory where it is compared to previous experiences in the long term memory. Then a decision is made as to what action to take based on this comparison. The action that was performed and the outcome from this action are then stored in the long term memory for future reference. Welford’s model is shown below: This model makes a performer react in the way that they do to a situation but there are many factors that can influence what action the performer decides to take. These include; time available, number and intensity of stimuli, experience, anticipation, fitness and motivation of the performer. The effect these factors have on a performer will vary from individual, racquet and team sports. The time that you have available to process the incoming stimuli differs in each sport. For example in rugby, which is externally paced, you have a small amount of time to process the stimuli and make a decision because there are usually many defenders around you. Tennis players also have very little time to react because the ball is usually travelling at a high speed and if they don’t make a decision and return the ball they will lose the point. However in golf, an internally paced sport, the player can take as long as they need to make a decision because there are no opponents directly around them. There are three main types of stimuli that enter the sensory input these are; Vision: is where a player will react to a visual stimulus such as the position of the ball or an opponent. These stimuli are easier to detect and react to if the stimulus is brighter. For example in tennis the ball is bright yellow which makes it easier to see. But there are also unwanted stimuli such as ball boys moving or crowd movements these stimuli are obviously irrelevant but they are still initially taken in which slows down the whole process. In an individual sport there are fewer visual stimuli for example in a 100m race the only real visual stimulus is where the finish line is in relation to you. Audition: this is all stimuli that are heard, for example when a team mate calls for the ball in rugby. Auditable stimuli are heard and processed easier and faster if they are loud and clear. There are also irrelevant auditable stimuli such as crowd noise these will slow down the information processing model. Proprioception: this is made up of three components; Equilibrium: this is an awareness of your body position and balance. We can tell if we are about to fall over and where we are in relation to objects. Team sports are more likely to have an uneven playing surface which means that your balance will have to be constantly adjusted as you are running. But in individual and racquet sports the playing surface is fairly constant with the exception of golf, where a stance may have to be altered to adjust to the surface. Kinaesthesis: this is where the body senses the muscle movement and contraction it is sometimes known as muscle memory. It is if the movement â€Å"feels† right to the performer. It is developed through practice and experience one example would be a conversion kick in rugby the player may take there step away from the ball in the same way they usually do but they may just â€Å"feel† that they are not in the right place. It doesn’t apply as much in team games as in individual and racquet sports apart from set plays. Tactile sense: this is the feeling of pressure this is important for all sports. It can be affected be the weather conditions because cold weather affects our ability to feel effectively. The short term sensory store is where all information is stored for a split second before it is processed. All relevant and irrelevant information is stored in here before it is replaced and lost. This does not differ between sports only what enters it does. The perception stage is where all the information that has come from the short term sensory store is processed. This is when irrelevant information is thrown away and useful stimuli such as where the ball is, is kept to make a decision and stored in the STM. This will vary between individual, racquet and team sports because of the amount of stimuli. In team sports there are more stimuli so it takes longer to sort through whereas there are relatively small amounts of stimuli in individual sports so it won’t take as long to sort them out. It also differs depending upon whether the performer is experienced or not as it will be easier for a expert to sort through the stimuli because they have more experience. We sort through the stimuli with selective attention and take only the important pieces of information because only around 7-10 pieces of information can be stored in the STM. The information passed on from the perception stage is then stored in the STM. Because only 7-10 pieces of information can be stored an experienced player may â€Å"chunk† information together so that the position of all players is one piece, but a beginner may not be able to do this so each player may be a separate piece. Team sports would be much more affected because of the amount of information so not all stimuli can be stored so a poor decision may be made but less poor decisions will be made in an individual or racquet sport because there is less information. The LTM holds information on movement patterns and the results of using them in certain situations and can hold them for a lifetime. Team sports have many memories but individual sports may have less. The decision making process is where what’s happening now (in the short term memory) with what has happened previously (in the long term memory). In the LTM the performer will be looking for similar situations and actions and their outcomes. This makes team games decision making process a lot longer because of the vast amount of information and possible actions to take. Whereas in an individual sport there is much less information and less possible actions. The motor output is the performance of the chosen skill. One example may be for a badminton player to put in a drop shot because the opponent is at the back of the court. The action is referred to the muscle movement in the LTM. The action and its consequences are then stored in the long term memory for future reference. Individual sports, because they are individually paced, make them the simplest in the IP model. Also because there are fewer stimuli there is a shorter reaction time which gives the performer more time to carry out the IP model which should result in a better decision. Racquet sports are externally paced due to the fact that there is an opponent; this means that there is less time for the performer to react. There are some irrelevant stimuli which will slow down the IP model which means it takes longer to decide than in an individual sport but not as long as in a team sport because there are fewer possibilities for what action to take. Team sports are externally paced which reduces the time available to react. Also there are much more irrelevant stimuli in team sports, this will lengthen the IP. The IP will also be lengthened due to the complexity of most team games because there are more situations and possible responses to choose from. Bibliography Advanced PE for Edexcel Heinemann by F. Galligan et al.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Brain Death Scenario Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Brain Death Scenario - Term Paper Example The battle intensifies and begins to disrupt the medical and nursing staff. Thesis Brain death is a physiological condition which is underpinned by heavy legal, ethical and medical implications and must therefore be handled with a wholesome and informed approach. Purpose of the paper The purpose of this paper is to discuss the ethical, legal and medical implications that surround brain death, and to divulge on how physicians should handle brain death. a) Ethical Issues Surrounding the Situation One of the ethical issues is that of organ donation or harvesting. The law consents that organs can be harvested from patients who are brain dead, provided that all provisions specified within the law are observed. This is because, brain death can lead to legal death despite the patient’s heartbeats and respiration being sustained through mechanical ventilation, thereby making the sustenance of vital organs for organ transplantation very possible. In this case, it is impossible to carry out organ harvesting since the patient’s brain death has not been conclusively established. This failure to establish the patient’s status precludes the law of any jurisdiction since all laws only give injunctions on where the patient’s status is clear. Thus, whether the patient is an automatic donor or not does not yet apply. In almost the same wavelength, organ transplant cannot be carried out because the consent of the next-of-kin or family members is a prerequisite for organ donation, if the patient had previously not stated his desire to be a donor. Nonetheless, even in this case, organ harvesting and donation will be ethically impossible since the patient’s family members are in total disagreement (Dubler, 2011). Another ethical twist to this matter concerns the scarcity of healthcare or medical resources. Because healthcare or medical resources are scarce and barely able to satisfy its large demand, there is pressure that such resources are extend ed to only viable cases. It is against this backdrop that brain dead patients who are non-organ donors are disconnected from the ventilator and drug support so that cardiac death may subsequently ensue. However, in this case, the patient must not be denied the ventilator, drugs and all manner of healthcare support since it has not yet been established whether the patient is brain-dead or not. Physicians must always diagnose the patient fully, in order to know his status, before administering any form of medical intervention on any patient. The case in point is not only applicable, but is also serious, warranting thorough diagnosis. b) Legal Issues Relating to This Situation Though physicians are the ones who ascertain whether legal criteria of death have been satisfied or not, it is the law that sets the criteria by which the description of death is to be done. Thus, it is important to reiterate the fact that the patient, despite his state of brain death, is legally still alive. The reason for this patient being rendered alive is twofold. First, it is important to note that even when legal indicators of life (respiration and heartbeat) are being artificially run (through the use of a ventilator), the patient is still considered living. Secondly, the law marks death as having taken place upon legal consequences starting to take effect. The most serious legal consequence is the distribution of the patient’s estate either under intestacy or a will. Another consequence is the

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Effects of divorce on children Research Proposal

Effects of divorce on children - Research Proposal Example (Clark-Stewart, 2007) In this regard, it is very important that core principles should be taught to the people of American society, which will help in achieving a potential and mature individual. Divorce of a number of parents is resulting in suffering of more than a million children in the United States. Moreover, studies have indicated that every year, half of children’s population suffers effects of divorce around the country. Evidence related to social science has shown that present and future generations of society are affected socially, economically, emotionally, as well as, physically by devastating effects of divorce. In brief, this paper will try to define, discuss, and analyze some of the aspects of divorce that affects the children. Statistics have specified that an increasing number of children are reported to be involved in different cases of abuse, who were living with divorced parents. More emotional and behavioral problems are exhibited by such children, who are an important part of human society. Moreover, higher frequency in drug abuse and crime has been reported with children living with single divorced parent. (Clark-Stewart, 2007) In educational terms, reading, math, and spelling are some subjects that are severely affected after divorce of the parents. In some of the states, lower rates of college graduation are observed in children with divorced parents. In other words, divorce affects the children on intellectual platform as well, which is responsible for significant development of the society. Additionally, fifty percent drop in grades is observed in children that experience divorce of their parents, as compared with their grades before the divorce. Eighty-five percent of adolescents have reported state of loneliness after the divorce, which shows the emotional effect of divorce on the children. Religion is an important aspect of human life, which has been associated with a number of activities, and studies have shown that

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Ethics in Business Today Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Ethics in Business Today - Essay Example Along with this, ethics also helps in reducing employee turnover thereby enhancing the range of efficiency, if maintained properly. Therefore, from the above points, it might be revealed that ethics acts as the catalyst that helps the business to enhance its dominance and supremacy in the market among other existing rival players. So, ethics is extremely essential for any business organization, operating in current scenario. Other than this, ethical policies and behaviors help an organization or business to attract more investors that might enhance the share prices to a significant extent among other rival players. Side by side ethics also helps in recruiting experienced and skilled employees within the organization that may prove effective in enhancing the total productivity of the organization. Thus, recruitment of talented staffs helps in development of varied types of inventive products and services for its customers thereby satisfying their changing needs and demands. This might help an organization in enhancing its brand value and loyalty within the minds of the target customers. As a result, its level of sustainability might get enhanced significantly. Consequently, ethics also helps in enhancing the inner morale of the employees so as to cope up with the inconveniences in turbulent situations. As a result of such type of inner confidence and willpower of the employees, the organization might become able to tackle the effects of the tough situations thereby retaining its previous image and values. However, this might be possible only if cooperation and team work might be maintained among all the members of the organization. Thus, it might be revealed that ethics is that type of inner psychology that might help an organization to develop a strong image and may also destroy its portfolio in the market among others (Plastin, 2013). Other than this, ethical decision making within an organization also helps in enhancing employee growth and their performance t owards the assigned duties and responsibilities. Due to which, the organization might become able to fulfill its target objectives and goals, which is extremely essential for any organization in this era. As a result, the organization might enhance its level of dominance within the market that may reduce the intensity of the new entrants to enter the segment. Along with this, the level of distinctiveness of the organization might also get enhanced thereby amplifying its output and profitability by a significant extent. As a result, the position and reputation of the organization might get improved in this aggressive market among other operating rivals. Hence, according to me ethics is important for any organization or a business for the following reasons presented below: Employee commitment Employee Growth Investor and stakeholders loyalty and commitment Improvement of the confidence power of the shareholders Improvement of the level of customer satisfaction Improvement in the relat ionship with the stakeholders Enhancement of the productivity of the organization Improvement of the level of performance Improvement of revenues and profit margin Improvement of reputation and image of the organizati

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

Constructions of cultural memory Research Paper

Constructions of cultural memory - Research Paper Example My research questions are: How is the cultural memory of Tiananmen Square Protests represented in the chosen resources and what are the changes that these memories seem to anticipate and argue for? How does the event continue to make history? Witty and Calhoun both represent the event’s cultural memory by describing some of the most critical turning points of the Tiananmen Square protests, although Witty emphasizes rebellion against autocracy through the Tank Man’s photo, while Calhoun analyzes the actions and thoughts of people who were in the midst of shaping democratic ideals in their own terms. Figure 1: Widener’s Photo of the Tank Man Source: Widener (1989 in Witty) In the article, â€Å"Behind the Scenes: Tank Man of Tiananmen,† Witty uses four photos of the Tank Man to represent different perspectives of the Tiananmen Square Protests, where these images try to underline that this man symbolizes the struggles of all ordinary people against government repression and corruption, but because of lack of violence of some photos, it somehow hides the gruesome effects of the government’s crackdown on the protesters. ... The cultural memory focuses on four tanks that are ready to crush all those who oppose and criticize the state and one man who will not be crushed at all. The light post represents urban space through manifesting technology and modernity. The action of the man against the tanks and the cropped lamp post together signify that non-violent action is light in the darkness because rationality meets irrationality. Standing tall like the lamp post, the Tank Man symbolizes democracy and hope for the people. The photo further shows that the tanks are approaching and one man with his shopping bags stand before them. Like others before him, the Tank Man stands in front of the state’s military tools, a memory which argues that he, as well as other ordinary people like him, will fight for democracy anytime and he will not even need tanks to do it. He only needs his resolve and principles, which hundreds to thousands others already offered when they died the night of the Chinese governmentà ¢â‚¬â„¢s crackdown. The photo argues that the state does not have absolute power because the people have power to fight for what is absolutely right for them- the right to oppose and to replace a corrupt and oppressive government. Furthermore, from Witty’s article, the Tiananmen Square protests continue to make history because it portrays an ordinary man’s greatest act of courage and integrity against symbols of oppression. The photo shows that the Tank Man seems to be an office employee with his white shirt and black pants. He is an ordinary man with two white shopping bags, the image of an urban dweller that the state wants to control. The photo argues that he is one man against the state’s violence, and yet because he has had enough, he will stand for his principles of